Focus & Alertness
Energy Ingredients – Vitamin B for Energy
Tyrosine is a precursor to neurotransmitters and increases plasma neurotransmitter levels – particularly dopamine and norepinephrine which are responsible for creating a state of alertness.The effect on mood is more noticeable in humans subjected to stressful conditions. A number of studies have found tyrosine to be useful during conditions of stress, cold, fatigue, prolonged work and sleep deprivation, with reductions in stress hormone levels and improvements in cognitive and physical performance seen in human trials. The Acetyl version of Tyrosine is the most bio-available.
- Neri DF, Wiegmann D, Stanny RR, Shappell SA, McCardie A, McKay DL (1995). “The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness”. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine 66 (4): 313–9. PMID 7794222.
- Reinstein DK, Lehnert H, Wurtman RJ (1985). “Dietary tyrosine suppresses the rise in plasma corticosterone following acute stress in rats”. Life Sci. 37 (23): 2157–63.doi:10.1016/0024-3205(85)90566-1. PMID 4068899.
- Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, Cloin PA, Langefeld JJ (1999). “Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course”. Brain Res. Bull. 48 (2): 203–9. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(98)00163-4.PMID 10230711.
- Thomas JR, Lockwood PA, Singh A, Deuster PA (1999). “Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment”. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 64 (3): 495–500.doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(99)00094-5. PMID 10548261.
DL-Phenylalanine (DLPA) is used as a nutritional supplement for its analgesic and antidepressant activities. DL-Phenylalanine is a mixture of D-Phenylalanine and L-Phenylalanine. The reputed analgesic activity of DL-phenylalanine may be explained by the possible blockage by D-phenylalanine of endorphin degradation similar to Tyrosine above. The mechanism of DL-phenylalanine’s supposed antidepressant activity may be accounted for by the precursor role of L-phenylalanine in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. Elevated brain levels of norepinephrine and dopamine are thought to have an antidepressant effect. Also, as DL-phenylalanine inhibits endorphin degradation, this leads to an inhibition of GABA release, which results in greater dopamine release.
- Psychiatry Res. 1985 Sep;16(1):21-6. Treatment of attention deficit disorder with DL-phenylalanine. Wood DR, Reimherr FW, Wender PH.
Citicoline, also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-Choline) & cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine is a psychostimulant/nootropic. Studies suggest that CDP-choline supplements increase dopamine receptor densities, and suggest that CDP-choline supplementation can ameliorate memory impairment caused by environmental conditions. Preliminary research has found that citicoline supplements help improve focus and mental energy and may possibly be useful in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Additionally it may help reduce food and other stress related cravings.
- Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, et al.(November 2008). “Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy”. NMR in Biomedicine 21(10): 1066–75. 10.1002/nbm.1281. 18816480.
- Killgore, WD; Ross, AJ; Kamiya, T; Kawada, Y; Renshaw, PF; Yurgelun-Todd, DA (2010 Jan). “Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foods.”. The International Journal of Eating Disorders
- Watanabe, S; Kono, S; Nakashima, Y; Mitsunobu, K; Otsuki, S (1975). “Effects of various cerebral metabolic activators on glucose metabolism of brain.”. Folia psychiatrica et neurologica japonica
Energy and Metabolic Boosters
Green Tea extract, 35mg caffeine
Green tea extracts exhibit stronger antioxidant protection for human body than vitamin C and vitamin E. The ability of GTP in green tea extracts to eliminate lipid-derived free radicals is noticeably stronger (almost 50 times) than that of ginkgo biloba extracts. As a source of caffeine, green tea has shown to be more easily processed by the body and less of a diuretic than coffee.
Q.Y. Zhu, Antioxidative activities of green tea catechins, Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong), 1999, p. III. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans1,2,3
Yerba Mate contains three alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, the main one being caffeine. Preliminary limited studies of mate have shown that the mate xanthine cocktail is different from other plants containing caffeine, most significantly in its effects on muscle tissue, as opposed to those on the central nervous system, which are similar to those of other natural stimulants.The three xanthines present in mate have been shown to have a relaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue, and a stimulating effect on heart tissue.In an investigation of mate antioxidant activity, there was a correlation found between content of caffeoyl-derivatives and antioxidant capacity.
- Filip, Rosana; Lotito, Silvina B.; Ferraro, Graciela; Fraga, Cesar G. (2000). “Antioxidant activity of Ilex paraguariensis and related species”. Nutrition Research20 (10): 1437–46. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(00)80024-X
- Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. Kang YR, Lee HY, Kim JH, Moon DI, Seo MY, Park SH, Choi KH, Kim CR, Kim SH, Oh JH, Cho SW, Kim SY, Kim MG, Chae SW, Kim O, Oh HG. Lab Anim Res. 2012 Mar;28(1):23-9. Epub 2012 Mar 21
Niacin (Vitamin B3)
Niacin has been used for over 50 years to increase levels of HDL in the blood and has been found to modestly decrease the risk of cardiovascular events in a number of controlled human trials. Plays a key role in metabolizing fats and other foods
Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble compound that enables a wide variety of chemical reactions mainly involving amino acids. Essential in order to get the neurotransmitter boost from amino acids like Tyrosine.
Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
Vitamin B9 is essential to numerous bodily functions. The human body needs folate to synthesize DNA, repair DNA, and methylate DNA as well as to act as a cofactor in biological reactions involving folate. It is especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth, children and adults both require folic acid to produce healthy red blood cells and prevent anemia.
Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood. It is one of the eight B vitamins. It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid synthesis and energy production.
Protective & Detoxifying
Supplementation with taurine has been shown to prevent oxidative stress induced by exercise.2 In addition, it has been shown to be effective in removing fatty liver deposits, preventing liver disease, and reducing cirrhosis in tested animals.1 There is also evidence that taurine is beneficial for adult human blood pressure and possibly, the alleviation of other cardiovascular ailments (in humans suffering essential hypertension and assists in modulating the body’s glucose levels.
- McCall, B (2005-12-28). “The ultimate hangover cure?”. bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- Zhang M, Izumi I, Kagamimori S, Sokejima S, Yamagami T, Liu Z, Qi B (2004). “Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men”. Amino Acids 26 (2): 203–7. doi:10.1007/s00726-003-0002-3. PMID 15042451.
Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring chemical that is an important structural component of nearly all connective tissues. Glucuronolactone is rapidly absorbed and metabolized into non-toxic metabolites such as xylulose. In addition, humans may be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis. According to The Merck Index, it is also used as a detoxicant.
- Effects of glucuronolactone and the other carbohydrates on the biochemical changes produced in the living body of rats by hard exercise. Tamura S, Tsutsumi S, Ito H, Nakai K, Masuda M. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1968 Mar;18(1):30-8
- Comparison of D-glucuronolactone and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities in the rat liver. Törrönen R, Marselos M. Med Biol. 1977 Apr;55(2):95-100.